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Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution #2020

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution By Pyotr Kropotkin Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution In this cornerstone of modern liberal social theory Peter Kropotkin states that the most effective human and animal communities are essentially cooperative rather than competitive Kropotkin based th
  • Title: Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution
  • Author: Pyotr Kropotkin
  • ISBN: 9780486449135
  • Page: 222
  • Format: Paperback
  • Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution By Pyotr Kropotkin In this cornerstone of modern liberal social theory, Peter Kropotkin states that the most effective human and animal communities are essentially cooperative, rather than competitive Kropotkin based this classic on his observations of natural phenomena and history, forming a work of stunning and well reasoned scholarship Essential to the understanding of human evolution aIn this cornerstone of modern liberal social theory, Peter Kropotkin states that the most effective human and animal communities are essentially cooperative, rather than competitive Kropotkin based this classic on his observations of natural phenomena and history, forming a work of stunning and well reasoned scholarship Essential to the understanding of human evolution as well as social organization, it offers a powerful counterpoint to the tenets of Social Darwinism It also cites persuasive evidence of human nature s innate compatibility with anarchist society Kropotkin s basic argument is correct, noted evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould Struggle does occur in many modes, and some lead to cooperation among members of a species as the best pathway to advantage for individuals Anthropologist Ashley Montagu declared that Mutual Aid will never be any out of date than will the Declaration of Independence New facts may increasingly become available, but we can already see that they will serve largely to support Kropotkin s conclusion that in the ethical progress of man, mutual support not mutual struggle has had the leading part Physician and author Alex Comfort asserted that Kropotkin profoundly influenced human biology by his theory of Mutual Aid He was one of the first systematic students of animal communities, and may be regarded as the founder of modern social ecology.
    Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution By Pyotr Kropotkin
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    About "Pyotr Kropotkin"

    1. Pyotr Kropotkin

      Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin , other spelling Peter Kropotkin was a geographer, a zoologist, and one of Russia s foremost anarchists One of the first advocates of anarchist communism, Kropotkin advocated a communist society free from central government.Because of his title of prince, he was known by some as the Anarchist Prince Some contemporaries saw him as leading a near perfect life, including Oscar Wilde, who described him as a man with a soul of that beautiful white Christ which seems coming out of Russia He wrote many books, pamphlets and articles, the most prominent being The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops, and his principal scientific offering, Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution He was also a contributor to the Encyclop dia Britannica Eleventh Edition.

    667 Comments

    1. This book cannot be overestimated in importance It was written in response to Social Darwinism and the horrifying excuse Social Darwinism gave for mass extermination of races , based on Kropotkin s scientific experiences in Siberia concerning cooperation in nonhuman animals, as well as his studies of savages, barbarians, the medieval city, and ourselves This book concludes that cooperation and mutual aid are the most important factors in the evolution of the species and the ability to survive Ve [...]


    2. Tr s instructif L anarchiste russe Pierre Kropotkine a crit ce livre en 1902 Il s agit de s lever contre certaines des interpr tations fallacieuses de la th orie de l volution de Darwin qui ont pu fleurir la fin du XIX me Ces derni res, se concentrant sur struggle for life , la lutte pour la vie, en viennent louer l injustice dans la soci t , la comp tition, et la fin de la solidarit le fameux Darwinisme social Non seulement c est amoral et injuste, mais c est d j faux dans la Nature Kropotkine [...]


    3. Peter Kropotkin is one of the most noteworthy anarchist thinkers over the last two centuries As with other political thinkers, so, too, with Kropotkin his analysis of human nature is critical for understanding his overall philosophical position For his view of human nature, Mutual Aid is a key for understanding his views His work is a harbinger of recent studies of sociobiology, many of which explore the roots of altruism human and otherwise Much of his thinking on the nature of society was for [...]


    4. I d only heard of him as an anarchist until I began to read about emotion the beginnings of ethics in animals in such authors as Frans de Waal where he was always mentioned as a forerunner One of those books sent me to Darwin Without Malthus The Struggle for Existence in Russian Evolutionary Thought which was totally interesting, as a lesson in how scientific understandings differ in different environments Kropotkin wasn t on his own, but part of a Russian trend I wish evolutionary theory had co [...]


    5. As clear, relevant and powerful as the day it was written if not desperately needed in our present day Mutual aid is our evolutionary heritage and ONLY path for the future We are not meant to struggle to survive all alone but to thrive together Paradigm shifted Man is no exception in nature He is also subject to the great principle of Mutual Aid which grants the best chances of survival to those who best support each other in the struggle for life The craft organization required, of course, a c [...]


    6. Kropotkin argues that mutual aid, co operation, solidarity with one s neighbors, sociability, have played the leading parts in human evolution, not competition The Darwinian struggle for survival has been with the environment, not with other people Man is not the warlike being he is claimed to be At no period of man s life were wars the normal state of existence He challenges Thomas Hobbes on his view of human nature Primitive man always preferred peace to war, though migration was sometimes nec [...]


    7. This book is made up of separate essays written over several years illustrating the natural tendency to organize around institutions of mutual aid The essays each focus on mutual aid amongst one of the following 1 animals 2 savages primitive societies 3 barbarians agrarian societies across Europe and Asia up to feudalism 4 inhabitants of the mediaeval cities of Europe and 5 ourselves contemporary societies at the time of writing at the turn of the 20th century.I really enjoyed and got a lot out [...]


    8. A eyeopener in today s world drunk with infallibility of individualism in its narrow terminological sense Kropotkin empirically debunks Darwinism, particularly social Darwinism by hundreds of examples of studies done on human societies a range of species from the minutest of organisms to the biggest on earth The book predominantly focuses on man s struggle for existence from the stone age to the dark ages, progressing on to the medieval period and finally ending with the modern times late 19th c [...]


    9. This is the edition I have It s a reprint of the 1914 edition, and includes the preface to the 1914 edition The book was not written as a unit it was pieced together from essays published, in large part, in the journal The Nineteenth Century There s a real need for a table of contents and index for this journal, which included a lot of work by prominent writers literary criticism some sensible, some quite absurd , philosophy, scientific work a variety of subjects by prominent authors and also by [...]


    10. Taking pretty much everything that current cultural and social thought vultures around down a couple of notches, Kropotkin makes a logical, sad because it was even necessary argument for what biologists now call mutualism The basic idea is simple and anyone who has ever had kids or felt even a glimmer or twinge of compassion for the homeless person coveting your pocket change as you satre greasily at them through the seditious steam of your fucking latte has felt it we progress further by helpin [...]


    11. I had this on my Kindle as a backup book for a while, because it was a free download from Project Gutenberg and I like Kropotkin pretty well see some reviews I wrote of other books of his I had chipped away at it piecemeal over time, on flights when I finished whatever other book I was reading and the like, but I recently went ahead and finished it because I got a bunch of great free John Muir books as my new backups This is an interesting hybrid sort of book Kropotkin is an anarchist and also a [...]


    12. The essence of this book is about how species work together for mutual benefit, despite the Darwinian argument of competition adopted by the capitalist system.Kropotkin argues that he does not find the bitter struggle for existence, among any other animal of the same species, except human beings He points to Rouseau who saw love, peace and harmony in nature being destroyed by the ascendancy of man Indeed he goes further by saying natural selection finds ways to avoid competition wherever possibl [...]


    13. When I used to work at Bound Together, an anarchist bookshop in San Francisco, they teased me because I had never read this book by Kropotkin aka the anarchist formerly known as prince The concept just seemed so basic that it didn t seem necessary to read the damn thing Mike Menser made me read it for a class he was teaching on social philosophy I still don t think it s really worth your time though.Wanna know the gist Ok, societies work just as well, no actually they often work better through m [...]


    14. I was expecting from this book I mean, I certainly appreciated Kropotkin s claims that seemed to reject a lot of what we hear about evolution and its applications to human societies ie, that, within the realm of adaptability, etc mutual aid is as important if not so than struggle but I feel like he certainly romanticized quite a few historical social structures that, I think, most anarchists would take issue with ie, patriarchy, monarchy, etc His argument makes clear that humans, along with ani [...]


    15. What an excellent book Pyotr in about 200 pages completely dispels the notion of Western individualism, and presents facts that show that societies that based their structure on cooperation, rather than competition achieved the highest economic, scientific, and moral levels From animals who help each other, to earlier humans who survived only because of their communal communistic approach to even present society where despite the inequalities created by division of wealth, the masses sill help e [...]


    16. Kropotkin presents a wider view of what survival of the fittest truly means Not intended as a refutation of Darwin s work, but rather an application of it in it s fullest context He reminds us that modernity has brought with it a decline in human relations, but at the core human beings are primed to help each other in greater and greater ways.


    17. Such an interesting book I was most interested of course in the first two sections, which are about animals He then goes into savages , barbarians , the medieval city, then his current time, which was early 1900s less interesting, but still a good thumbs up on this book.


    18. This book should be thought in every school across the planet For anybody that wants to understand, scientifically, the foundation of our nature as a species, then this is the book for you.


    19. Kropotkin s optimistic and visionary work represents the best kind of left wing anarchism It rejects centralized State power and offers, in its stead, a vision of life that is based on the power of mutual aid and mutual support between people, as between animals, as a tool of progress and a factor of evolution The book provides a strong challenge to the nature red in tooth and claw mentality of some of the followers of Darwin and Malthus in the social sciences The mutual aid tendency in man has [...]


    20. The constructed work of these unknown masses, you never see in the writings of academics and intellectuals, but it s the importance of that work in the growth of forms of society, fully appeared to me at this time Something you can t learn from books KropotkinPeter Kropotkin was the first person to get scientists to start thinking that cooperation and altruism can be the product of natural processes via evolution Before this book, evolution always favor those who can out compete that lead to zer [...]


    21. In his book Kropotkin shows us one of the main rules of nature mutual aid He however, acknowledges that this is not the only rule that drives nature the other main one being of competition , but chooses to only focus on mutual aid because it has been so far completely ignored by the authors and scientist of this time The book is a collection of essays, written in a big time span, that were later turn into a book In the first chapters a good number of examples from the animal world are given to s [...]


    22. Las especies animales en las que la lucha entre los individuos ha sido reducida al m nimo y en las que la pr ctica de la ayuda mutua ha alcanzado el m ximo desarrollo son, invariablemente, las especies m s numerosas, las m s florecientes y m s aptas para el progreso En la pr ctica de la ayuda mutua, cuyas huellas podemos seguir hasta las m s antiguas fases de la evoluci n, hallamos el origen positivo e indudable de nuestras concepciones ticas y podemos afirmar que el principal papel en la evoluc [...]


    23. mutual aid biyolojik a dan sade ve akla yatk n bi imde anlat lm ve rneklendirilmi fakat bunu anarko kom nizm e uyarlamaya al mas ok akla yatk n olmam ve kitab n ilk b l mlerinden ald m hazz ka rd maalesef.


    24. this book is pretty long for such a short book, the paragraphs are very long and it feels like you re never going to get the book finished, because it s so long kropotkin in this book rambles on about irrelevant things, not related to the book, at the ending of the book, and towards the last chapter, kropotkin starts to mention relevant things, like human nature and how many people use it to discredit socialism, he mentions that man is not born greedy and selfish, he must be TAUGHT to be selfish [...]


    25. MUTUAL AID A FACTOR OF EVOLUTION 1902 , by Pytor Kropotkin, is a groundbreaking and at times charming work of scientific and social speculation In the spirit of a Charles Fourier, Kropotkin advances a compelling vision of the evolutionary significance of cooperation over competition and the striking, and overlooked, role that social habits of mutual aid have played in the sweep of evolutionary history both animal and human Nonetheless, it is also a work that sometimes repels as much as it attrac [...]


    26. Dense, at times tediously so, but definitely worth the effort, Mutual Aid is Kropotkin s response to Social Darwinism and its simplistic reduction of the nuanced Darwinian concept of struggle into the narrowly individualistic, each against all notion of competition As such, it is also a valuable corrective to contemporary scientific disciplines evolutionary psychology and neuroscience come to mind that seek to reduce all evidence of cooperation and altruism in nature to self centered competition [...]


    27. There were many points mentioned that provided good support to the argument for mutual aid and the extension to the theories of Darwinism pertaining to the sociability of a species These included the comparison of animals and human organization and civilization.Despite the strong arguments the unfocused part of his work related to apparent views of kropotkin that contradict his main argument Such opinions aligned with elitist, nationalist, and even racist views Such views may have no effect on h [...]


    28. If you know leftist politics, you ve probably heard of Pyotr Kropotkin the 19th century Russian noble who became a raging, righteous anarchist He was also a scientist, and a rich and deep reader of biology, history, anthropology, and numerous other fields The basis of this book is an attempt to find what Kropotkin called the principle of mutual aid in a wide variety of historical and biological circumstances This is the idea that species, as well as social groups, use cooperation and mutual supp [...]


    29. this is an wonderful account of an anarchist revolutionary finding support for his socvial values in nature This book has been pretty much discarded by modern evolutionists though with fond feelings by progressives , yet I think it has a lot of current value it is a great counter argument to the idea that darwinism leads to survival of the fittest economic and political thinking.Kropotkin was a dedicated biologist and really thought carefully about his wide ranging observations of nature I belie [...]


    30. I ve found much to agree with and think about from the anarchists And this work from Peter Kropotkin touches on science and evolution It really covers ground very similar to what Richard Dawkins details most of a century later in The Selfish Gene that cooperative behavior is a beneficial survival strategy and so any inherited traits that promote it will be favored by natural selection.Kropotkin admits he is giving a somewhat rosy slant to his depictions of nature, and he seems wedded to a very n [...]


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